|Project Title||Principal Investigator||Institution|
|Brain region specific oxidative stress||Sajdel-Sulkowska, Ellen||Brigham and Women's Hospital|
|Neuronal oxidative stress in autism||Xiongwei, Zhu||Case Western Reserve University|
|Psychosis and autoimmune diseases in Denmark||Eaton, William||Johns Hopkins University|
|Fraternal birth order effects on behavior||Breedlove, S. Marc||Michigan State University|
|Neuroimmunologic investigations of autism spectrum disorders (ASD)||Swedo, Susan||National Institutes of Health|
|Studies of central nervous system functional anatomy||Herkenham, Miles||National Institutes of Health|
|Regulation of inflammatory TH17 cells in ASD||Littman, Dan||New York University School of Medicine|
|Influence of oxidative stress on transcription and alternative splicing of methionine synthase in autism||Muratore, Christina||Northeastern University|
|Evaluation and treatment of copper/zinc imbalance in children with autism||Ramer, Jeanette||Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center|
|Markers of inflammation and oxidative damage||Chauhan, Abha||Research Foundation for Mental Hygiene, Inc.|
|Maternal inflammation alters fetal brain development via Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha||Carpentier, Pamela||Stanford University|
|Is autism a mitochondrial disease?||Giulivi, Cecilia||University of California, Davis|
|Primate models of autism||Amaral, David; Bauman, Melissa||University of California, Davis|
|Project 2: Immunological susceptibility of autism||Van de Water, Judy||University of California, Davis|
|Genetics of autistic disorder||Spence, M. Anne||University of California, San Diego|
|Autism: Role of oxytocin||Ellerbeck, Kathryn||University of Kansas Medical Center|
|Impact of innate immunity on regressive autism||Jyonouchi, Harumi||University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey|
|Deriving neuroprogenitor cells from peripheral blood of individuals with autism||Fujinami, Robert||University of Utah|
|IACC Strategic Plan Objectives||2008||2009||2010||2011||2012||Total|
|Support at least four research projects to identify mechanisms of fever, metabolic and/or immune system interactions with the central nervous system that may influence ASD during prenatal-postnatal life by 2010 (Fever studies to be started by 2012).
IACC Recommended Budget: $9,800,000 over 4 years
|2.S.A. Funding: The recommended budget for this objective was met.
Progress: Many projects were funded in this area (approximately 20-30 per year), but the field is still developing, and emphasis on this objective should continue in the future. Scientific advances have been made in linking maternal innate immune function and immune-system challenge to aspects of ASD. Methodological advances in the field include the development of animal models for study of the role of the immune system in ASD and PET ligands for imaging microglial activation.
Remaining Gaps, Needs and Opportunities: There is a need for a well-designed, multi-site clinical study of clinical effects of fever and to develop standard measures of fever and behavioral/cognitive outcomes. Questions about fever could be integrated into funded epidemiological studies. There is also interest in further work on metabolic and mitochondrial issues, but in order for this work to be done, there is a need for validation and standardization of measures for assessment of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function. More guidance is needed on the key questions for this field to answer â a workshop to define these methodologies may be helpful. One of the key questions is to determine whether it is the body temperature associated with fever or some consequence of immune activation and production of the febrile state that leads to amelioration of cognitive function.