Electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used extensively to characterize functional and anatomical brain abnormalities associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). While the proposed project will contribute to this endeavor, it derives its primary significance from the application of these techniques to intervention. It is generally accepted that autism research should be translational. However, despite solid evidence for the importance of genetic factors in ASD, numerous large-scale genetic studies have failed to translate into effective therapies. The reasons are varied and imply that a comprehensive model of neurodevelopmental disturbances in ASD may not be available for years. However, children with ASD and their parents cannot wait, but rely on the immediate pursuit of treatment options that are promising. This project offers that possibility because it is based on convergent evidence of mirror neuron system involvement in ASD as well as direct evidence suggesting that plasticity-induced rehabilitation training, a type of operant conditioning, may be effective. This promises to produce a substantial impact on the field and possibly to establish this type of intervention broadly as a treatment option.