The Effective Health Care program at the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) sponsors the development of evidence reports and technology assessments to assist public- and private-sector organizations in their efforts to improve the quality of health care in the United States. The program represents an important Federal effort to compare alternative treatments for health conditions and make the findings public. The program is intended to help patients, doctors, nurses, pharmacists and others choose the most effective treatments. This review grew out of a recognition that care for adolescents and young adults with ASDs varies greatly across care providers and that clinicians and families must make important health care decisions that will have tremendous impact on outcomes with little guidance or knowledge. Similarly, lawmakers struggle with making the best decisions about policy and funding due to lack of an adequate knowledge base regarding the most effective treatments.