This project will analyze the cellular architecture of pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex of postmortem human subjects with autism. Axons and dendrites transfer the electrical signals within the brain via the spines. These electrical signals, which are important in neural networks, are altered in autism. To determine the role of dendrites and spines in disrupted signaling, we will measure the length, volume and morphology of dendrites and spines using Golgi staining and Neurolucida tracing software. This study will further the understanding of micro-anatomical pathology and neural connections involved in signal transmission in autism, and therefore, it will take us a step closer to developing new treatments for autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders.