This is a Clinical Investigator Award, providing an opportunity for a medical investigator to develop into an independent researcher. Despite links between early postnatal deprivation (ESD) and neuropsychological problems, few studies have investigated whether the neural substrates thought to underlie such functions are abnormal in children with such histories. The overarching aim of the proposed studies is to probe, with imaging techniques, the structural and functional neurobiological consequences of ESD. The approach of integrating magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) methods with neuropsychological assessments is innovative and will yield new and important data on children exposed to ESD. These studies have potential translational value, as neuroimaging data can be used to monitor effects of therapeutic interventions and to assess the potential reversibility of findings, which has not been possible in the past.