This grant provides support for an NIH Autism Center of Excellence (ACE). Although up to 30% of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are minimally verbal, extremely few interventions can reliably produce significant improvements in speech output. Recently, the researchers involved in this project have developed Auditory-Motor Mapping Training (AMMT), a novel intonation-based intervention, which aims to facilitate speech output in minimally verbal children with ASD. This intervention involves the mapping of sounds to oral articulatory actions through intonation and bimanual motor activities and is built upon the musical strengths and preferences that have been observed in these children. Furthermore, associating sounds with actions engages an auditory-motor network of brain regions important for speech that has been reported to be dysfunctional in ASD. The overall aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of AMMT to that of a control therapy (CT) in facilitating speech output in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). In addition, the effect of frequency of AMMT on treatment outcome, and whether pre-existing variability in language-related pathways and functional connections correlate with outcome and is changed after treatment, will be examined. By using a combination of behavioral and brain imaging measures, the proposed study will examine the efficacy of a novel intervention and enhance understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms that underlie the therapy effects.