There is a pressing need to improve early detection of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) so that families can access intensive, appropriate intervention services as early as possible. However, studies indicate that important racial and ethnic disparities exist in the identification and diagnosis of children with ASD in the US, which impact access to services. This research investigation is a foundational study of early social communication markers of ASD in children from two diverse cultures from two different countries- Latino immigrants in Southeastern U.S. and the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) province of South Africa. The expected outcomes of this study will have significance for the field by identifying behavioral markers that distinguish young Latino children in the Southeastern U.S. and African children from KwaZulu-Natal with ASD from children with typical development from those cultures. Cultural differences may be evident in the behavioral phenotype of ASD, recognition and interpretation of symptoms by caregivers, the decisions parents make regarding evaluation and treatment, and interactions between families and the healthcare system. The results of this research will lead to culturally sensitive screening and evaluation methods that may decrease the age at which all children with ASD are diagnosed.