This is a mentored Research Scientist Career Development Award for research and training support. The main goal of the proposed research is to examine aberrant structural and functional brain connectivity underlying atypical cognition and behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The candidate proposes to probe large-scale brain networks using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine possible aberrant cortical connectivity and compromises in dynamic interactions between networks in children with ASD. The researcher will test the hypothesis that hypoactivity of the anterior insula during processing of social stimuli results in reduced salience detection in individuals with ASD, which impairs dynamic switching between other large-scale brain networks important for cognition. Additionally, methods to establish brain-based biomarkers to distinguish children with ASD from typically developing children using a combination of brain connectivity measures and cognitive and behavioral measures will be explored. Characterization of the integrity and functional roles of brain networks, as well as interactions between them, will help to understand the underlying brain differences in individuals with ASD and eventually lead to the development of more effective treatments and therapies.