Genetic variation studies on patients with autism and schizophrenia have demonstrated increased or reduced copies of small chromosomal regions containing up to 50 or more genes. To study the impact of these copy number variations (CNVs) requires access to patient neurons. The discovery that skin fibroblasts can be reprogrammed into stem cells provides a novel system to produce neurons to study these disorders. These induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) cells are produced by transfer of 4 genes into fibroblasts. The long term goals of this project are: 1) to determine whether the iPS cell system can identify differences in neuron function in human ASD and schizophrenia patients and 2) to develop new chemical methods to generate human iPS cells with reduced or no genetic modifications. In the initial phase of this research, iPS cell lines will be made from ASD and schizophrenia subjects and parent controls. Creating iPS cell models of mental health disorders will allow researchers to correlate expression of candidate genes with neuronal function and identify how nerve cell function differs from normal. These cells will be used to safely test new treatments in the future.