This grant provided support for a 2010 symposium that addressed the emerging issues at the crossroads of mitochondrial function and autism. There are now several reports of autism and mitochondrial dysfunction coincident in individuals and family pedigrees. Recent and ongoing investigations are revealing mechanisms by which atypically functioning mitochondria can lead to disordered neurodevelopment. Meetings of thought leaders in mitochondrial medicine and autism are needed to identify the most fruitful areas of research and progress at this unique and important intersection. The symposium had three Specific Aims: 1) foster discussion and cross-fertilization of topics central to both autism and mitochondrial disorders, including genetics, epigenetics, epilepsy, and neuroinflammation, 2) provide an "Ask the Doc" forum for the public to pose questions directly to clinicians and through primers and the symposium presentations, to learn about the latest research on autism and mitochondria, and 3) disseminate this information to the broader community through a "Conference Report" to be published in the journal Autism Research. The schedule of internationally-recognized speakers and timely topics made this symposium a milestone event for the research community, fostered clinical collaborations, and provided up-to-date information in a parallel program for families seeking information on the relationship between mitochondrial disease and autism.