This grant provided support for a Keystone Symposium meeting entitled, "Synapses: Formation, Function and Misfunction," organized by Matthew B. Dalva, Peter Scheiffele and Yishi Jin, which was held in Snowbird, Utah from April 11 - 15, 2010. During the last half-decade, a host of cellular mechanisms guiding synapse development have been identified. Exciting new links are being forged between our growing understanding of these basic processes and neurological diseases, including such as autism spectrum disorders and mental retardation. This meeting was a forum for leading scientists from around the world to discuss these links and how these might be exploited in addressing human disease. A major driving force in current research of synapses is new technologies. This meeting focused on these areas, bringing together scientists working on the basic biological questions of how synapses form in model organisms and the development of new technology, and those with interests in understanding the links to human diseases. Moreover, the meeting provided ample opportunity for students and postdoctoral fellows to participate in the meeting with two poster sessions and numerous short talks. Overall, the meeting provided opportunities for interactions among scientists who might not normally interact, as well as offered opportunities for younger scientists to develop their careers. Last, but far from least, the pairing of this meeting with the meeting entitled, "Towards Defining the Pathophysiology of Autistic Behavior," provided unique opportunities for high-level interdisciplinary interactions that are likely to lead to new directions in research.