This grant provided partial support for an international meeting on Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology as part of a Gordon Research Conference series held at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology on June 6 to 11, 2010. First organized in 1998, this conference has provided a unique bridge between American and Asian neuroscientists. Research into mechanisms of brain function is essential to conquer neurological diseases that afflict a large portion of society, including autism and mental retardation in children, addiction and mental illness in children and adults, and neurodegenerative diseases that are most prevalent in senior citizens. The overall goal of this conference was to increase our understanding of fundamental mechanisms that control development and function of the nervous system in health and disease. In particular, conference organizers sought to promote scientific interactions between American and Asian scientists to advance this objective. For this purpose, 30 speakers, including one Nobel Laureate, delivered presentations on recent developments in their laboratories to approximately 180 attendees. Several presentations were also given by less established scientists with speaker choice based upon submitted abstracts. Poster sessions provided an opportunity for every attendee to present his/her work. Speakers at the conference described recent progress in studies important for understanding afflictions that include autism, mental retardation, addiction, mental illness, neurodegenerative diseases and postinjury regeneration. The conference was directed at communicating exciting new developments in these areas and stimulating discussion among participants from different disciplines and nationalities that will accelerate efforts to understand mechanisms that control human brain development and function.