This grant provided partial support for a new Gordon Research Conference on Neurobiology of Cognition, which was held in Waterville, New Hampshire. The meeting series is planned to take place biennially. Recent developments in Neuroscience have begun to uncover the brain circuit basis of higher cognitive functions at the level of systems analysis, computational principles, and neurophysiological mechanisms. The broad and long-term goal of this conference is to provide an informal forum with the highest quality for investigators from three fields (behavioral and circuit neurophysiology, cognitive neuroscience, and computational/theoretical neurobiology) to exchange ideas and data and to foster collaboration and communication. The specific aims of this meeting were to convene about 40 speakers and discussion leaders with a total of up to 200 participants for a four day/five night conference in a relatively isolated setting, with a format specially designed to foster informal discussions. The program had eight sessions that address current issues on the brain mechanisms of working memory, decision making, selective attention, task rule and task switching, memory networks, large-scale brain circuit dynamics, the neural basis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals, and circuit basis of cognitive deficits associated with mental illness. In addition, short talks and two poster sessions were held, allowing all participants to contribute to these topics. This new and highly cross-disciplinary field urgently needed such a meeting, which helped and will continue to help define and propel research in this important area of modern science. This conference was highly relevant to healthcare, as progress in our understanding of the brain mechanisms of cognitive functions will directly translate into novel and better treatments of cognitive deficits associated with mental disorders, such as dysfunctions of working memory and decision making in schizophrenia, attention abnormalities in ADHD, and impairments of social cognition with autism.