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Publications Analysis Cover 2012
Publications Analysis
Autism Spectrum Disorder Research
The Global Landscape of Autism Research
2012
Appendices

References

1 US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders — Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 14 Sites, United States, 2008. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2012 March 30;61(SS03);1-19.

2 Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee. 2011 IACC Strategic Plan for Autism Spectrum Disorder Research. January 2011. Retrieved from the Department of Health and Human Services Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee website.

3,8,19 Office of Autism Research Coordination, National Institute of Mental Health, on behalf of the Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC). 2010 IACC Autism Spectrum Disorder Research Portfolio Analysis Report. July 2012. Retrieved from the Department of Health and Human Services Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee website.

4,25,30 Jones BF, Wuchty S, Uzzi B. Multi-university research teams: shifting impact, geography, and stratification in science. Science. 2008 Nov 21;322(5905):1259-62.

5,26,31 Wuchty S, Jones BF, Uzzi B. The Increasing Dominance of Teams in Production of Knowledge. Science. 2007 May 18; 316 (5827), 1036-1039.

6 Office of Autism Research Coordination, National Institute of Mental Health, on behalf of the Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC). 2008 IACC Autism Spectrum Disorder Research Portfolio Analysis Report. 2009. Retrieved from the Department of Health and Human Services Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee website.

7 Office of Autism Research Coordination, National Institute of Mental Health & Acclaro Research Solutions, Inc., on behalf of the Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC). 2009 IACC Autism Spectrum Disorder Research Portfolio Analysis Report. June 2011. Retrieved from the Department of Health and Human Services Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee website.

9 Simons Foundation. SFARI Gene Website. Accessed on June 20, 2012.

10 Betancur C. Etiological heterogeneity in autism spectrum disorders: more than 100 genetic and genomic disorders and still counting. Brain Res. 2011 Mar 22;1380:42-77.

11,12 Geschwind DH. Genetics of autism spectrum disorders. Trends Cogn Sci. 2011 Sep;15(9):409-16.

13 Hertz-Picciotto I, Croen LA, Hansen R, Jones CR, van Water J, Pessah IN. The CHARGE study: an epidemiologic investigation of genetic and environmental factors contributing to autism. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114:1119–1125.

14 LaSalle JM. A genomic point-of-view on environmental factors influencing the human brain methylome. Epigenetics. 2011 Jul;6(7):862-9.

15 Gropman AL, Batshaw ML. Epigenetics, copy number variation, and other molecular mechanisms underlying neurodevelopmental disabilities: new insights and diagnostic approaches. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2010 Sep;31(7):582-91.

16 Lovaas, O. Ivar. Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1987;55(1):3-9.

17 Smith T. Outcome of early intervention for children with autism. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. 1999;6:33–49.

18 C. Maurice, G. Green, S.C. Luce (Eds.), Behavioral intervention for young children with autism: A manual for parents and professionals, Pro-Ed, Austin, TX (1996).

20,21 Costas R and van Leeuwen TN. Approaching the 'Reward Triangle': general analysis of the presence of funding acknowledgments and 'peer interactive communication' in scientific publications. Preprint of article accepted for publication in Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 2012.

22 Bordons M, Gómez I, Fernández MT, Zulueta MA, Méndez A. Local, domestic and international scientific collaboration in biomedical research. Scientometrics. 1996;37:279–295.

23 Sin, S.-C. J. International coauthorship and citation impact: A bibliometric study of six LIS journals, 1980–2008. J. Am. Soc. Inf. Sci. 2011;62:1770–1783.

24 Katz, J., & Hicks, D. How much is a collaboration worth? A calibrated bibliometric model. Scientometrics. 1997;40(3), 541–554.

27 Lee K, Brownstein JS, Mills RG, Kohane IS. Does Collocation Inform the Impact of Collaboration? PLoS ONE. 2010; 5(12): e14279.

28 Moed, H.F. Citation analysis in research evaluation. 2005. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

29 National Science Board. 2012. Science and Engineering Indicators 2012. Arlington, VA: NSB: 12-01.

32 The World Bank. April 2012. World Development Indicators 2012. Data retrieved June 20, 2012, from World Development Indicators (WDI) Online database.

Footnotes

i The Children's Health Act (CHA) of 2000 established an earlier version of the IACC, but the CAA significantly changed the Committee by specifying membership requirements, mandating several activities and functions, and defining the Committee's role in facilitating public dialogue on matters related to ASD.

iiMore information on NIH autism spending can be found at the NIH RePORT Website.

iii Following the Children's Health Act of 2000, CDC's newly-established National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities established the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network.

iv For the purpose of this report, publications concerning either environment or gene-environment interactions were considered as one category. The categorization algorithm was unable to discriminate accurately between these two related areas. Also, only a relatively small number of these publications specifically address gene by environment interactions (~20 publications in 2010). Please note that in the 2010 IACC ASD Portfolio Analysis Report, Environment and Gene-Environment are tracked separately, as these categories are distinguishable when applying a manual coding approach to research grant portfolios.

v NIH grant policy details.

vi Description of funder types: 1) Government includes all public funding (i.e., State, Federal, etc.), 2) Private includes non-profit/philanthropic organizations as well as for-profit industry, 3) University includes all universities, public and private, 4) Hospital includes all hospitals, public and private, 5) Public/private partnership includes funding sources that have significant governmental and private support.

vii Funding acknowledgments to pharmaceutical companies in the ScienceWire database were manually reviewed to determine whether an acknowledgment indicated direct funding support or a general conflict of interest. Acknowledgments that were deemed conflict of interest statements were not included in this analysis.

viii Seven publications only acknowledged funding from hospitals and universities. These are included in the total number of publications with funding acknowledgments (870), but not represented in the Venn diagram.

ix For ease of analysis and figure clarity, all non-US funders, government and private, were grouped together for funding overlap analyses.

x This group represents a combination of non-US government and non-US private funders.

xi More information on NIH's Autism Centers of Excellence can be found in the Biennial Report of the NIH Director, 2008-2009.

xii More state by state details on US health-related Federal research funding provided by the NIH, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) can be found on the Research!America Website.

Appendix I: Methodology For Identifying ASD-Related Research Publications And Supplemental Primary Research Publication Counts

An automated keyword search was used to identify publications that contained the terms "autism," "autistic," "Asperger," or "pervasive developmental disorder" in the journal title, article title, article abstract or article keywords. Publications tagged with the MEDLINE MeSH terms "Asperger syndrome," "autistic disorder," or "child development disorders, pervasive" were also collected and classified as ASD-related. MeSH terms are only present for articles with records in MEDLINE.

The Thomson Reuters ScienceWire Publication Catalog, a central database that includes publication records for both the MEDLINE section of PubMed and the Thomson Reuters Web of Science® (WoS) was used for this keyword search. For instances in which publication records were identified in both the MEDLINE and WoS databases, a thorough de-duplication algorithm was applied to merge the two records into a single publication record. In cases for which the same record was identified in both databases and resolved to a single publication, WoS data were preferentially presented above MEDLINE data, with missing data points populated using MEDLINE, as available. Several data points are only available from WoS; therefore preferential usage of WoS data presents a more consistent set of data points for analysis. These data points include:

  • Citation Counts
  • Journal Subject Categories
  • Keywords

In the rare instance that the data fields in the two databases were sufficiently different, the same publication may be present multiple times. For example, if a publication has the same title and journal, but different publication dates or authors listed in the two databases, these are reported as two separate publications. It is estimated that this may happen in approximately 1% or fewer of the publications.

MEDLINE and WoS have different indicators for document type. Whereas WoS assigns a single article type to a publication, MEDLINE may assign multiple article types. Publications were classified as primary research, secondary research or meeting abstract based on the general guidelines listed below.

  • Publication records classified as "meeting abstract" in the WoS were excluded from this analysis because there was usually insufficient text to indicate a specific category.
  • Secondary research articles included:
    • WoS Editorials
    • Articles with the classifications outlined in Table A-4 and all articles from one of 81 specified journals in the WoS that are known to publish primarily secondary research articles (Table A-5).
  • All other articles were considered primary research.

Regardless of whether analyses included the combined categories of primary and secondary research publications or were restricted to primary research only, very similar trends and distributions of publication output across the Critical Question areas were observed. The following figures include only primary research publications and are companions to Figures 8-11 in the body of the report, which demonstrate combined primary and secondary research publication output. For example, Figure A-27 draws from the same data set as Figure 8; however, Figure A-27 plots primary research publication counts by Critical Question area, whereas Figure 8 plots the combined counts of primary and secondary research publications.

Growth in ASD Primary Research Publications by Critical Question Area, 1981 to 2010

Figure A-27. Growth in ASD Primary Research Publications by Critical Question Area, 1981 to 2010. The growth trends in primary research publication output by Critical Question areas of autism research over the past 30 years illustrate very similar patterns as Figure 8, which plots the combined output of primary and secondary research publications by Critical Question area. Each data point represents a five-year average of the number of annual autism publications.

Figure A-27. Growth in ASD Primary Research Publications by Critical Question Area, 1981 to 2010. The growth trends in primary research publication output by Critical Question areas of autism research over the past 30 years illustrate very similar patterns as Figure 8, which plots the combined output of primary and secondary research publications by Critical Question area. Each data point represents a five-year average of the number of annual autism publications.

Number and Fold Growth of ASD Primary Research Publications from 2000 to 2010

Figure A-28. Number and Fold Growth of ASD Primary Research Publications from 2000 to 2010. This figure illustrates number (top left) and fold growth (bottom right) of primary research publications within the Critical Question areas since 2000. Recent primary research publication growth trends are very similar to growth of combined primary and secondary research trends illustrated in Figure 9. Both show that while Biology maintains the largest proportion of publications, other areas are growing at least as quickly, including Infrastructure and Surveillance, Services, and Lifespan Issues.

Figure A-28. Number and Fold Growth of ASD Primary Research Publications from 2000 to 2010. This figure illustrates number (top left) and fold growth (bottom right) of primary research publications within the Critical Question areas since 2000. Recent primary research publication growth trends are very similar to growth of combined primary and secondary research trends illustrated in Figure 9. Both show that while Biology maintains the largest proportion of publications, other areas are growing at least as quickly, including Infrastructure and Surveillance, Services, and Lifespan Issues.

Primary Research Publication Output and Trends in Subcategories of Autism Risk Factor Research

Figure A-29. Primary Research Publication Output and Trends in Subcategories of Autism Risk Factor Research. The pie graph (top) illustrates relative proportions of primary research articles published in 2010 in three subcategories of ASD Risk Factor research and the line graph (bottom) shows the increase in number of publications in each subcategory over time from 1980 to 2010. Similar to the distribution of both primary and secondary research publications illustrated in Figure 10, Genetic Risk Factors research had the greatest number and proportion of publications, followed by Environmental Risk Factors and then Epigenetics.

Figure A-29. Primary Research Publication Output and Trends in Subcategories of Autism Risk Factor Research. The pie graph (top) illustrates relative proportions of primary research articles published in 2010 in three subcategories of ASD Risk Factor research and the line graph (bottom) shows the increase in number of publications in each subcategory over time from 1980 to 2010. Similar to the distribution of both primary and secondary research publications illustrated in Figure 10, Genetic Risk Factors research had the greatest number and proportion of publications, followed by Environmental Risk Factors and then Epigenetics.

Primary Research Publication Output and Trends in Subcategories of Autism Treatments and Interventions Research

Figure A-30. Primary Research Publication Output and Trends in Subcategories of Autism Treatments and Interventions Research. The pie graph (top) illustrates relative proportions of primary research articles published in 2010 on seven subcategories of ASD Treatments and Interventions research and the line graph (bottom) shows the change in number of publications in each subcategory over time, from 1980 to 2010. Similar to the combined distribution of primary and secondary Treatments and Interventions research publications illustrated in Figure 11, the most prolific areas of primary research include Behavioral, Technology-Based Interventions and Supports, Medical/Pharmacological, and Educational interventions.

Figure A-30. Primary Research Publication Output and Trends in Subcategories of Autism Treatments and Interventions Research. The pie graph (top) illustrates relative proportions of primary research articles published in 2010 on seven subcategories of ASD Treatments and Interventions research and the line graph (bottom) shows the change in number of publications in each subcategory over time, from 1980 to 2010. Similar to the combined distribution of primary and secondary Treatments and Interventions research publications illustrated in Figure 11, the most prolific areas of primary research include Behavioral, Technology-Based Interventions and Supports, Medical/Pharmacological, and Educational interventions.

Table A-4. Web of Science® and MEDLINE Article Types Classified as Secondary Articles

  • Web of Science®
  • Review
  • Book Review
  • Database Review
  • Hardware Review
  • Software Review
  • Art Exhibit Review
  • Film Review
  • Music Score Review
  • Record Review
  • Music Performance Review
  • Theater Review
  • TV Review, Radio Review, Video
  • Dance Performance Review
  • MEDLINE
  • Addresses
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Conference
  • Comment
  • Consensus Development Conference
  • Consensus Development Conference, NIH
  • Dictionary
  • Directory
  • Duplicate Publication
  • Editorial
  • Government Publications
  • Guideline
  • Interactive Tutorial
  • Interview
  • Introductory Journal Article
  • Lectures
  • Legal Cases
  • Legislation
  • Letter
  • News
  • Newspaper Article
  • Overall
  • Patient Education Handout
  • Periodical Index
  • Practice Guideline
  • Published Erratum
  • Retracted Publication
  • Retraction of Publication
  • Review
  • Scientific Integrity Review
  • Technical Report
  • Congresses
  • Historical Article

Table A-5. Journals in which All Publications Were Classified as Secondary Research

  • American Family Physician
  • American Psychologist
  • Behavioral Healthcare
  • Biology & Philosophy
  • BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.)
  • British Journal Of Hospital Medicine
  • Cornell Law Review
  • Cultural Studies
  • Current Opinion in Psychiatry
  • Current Opinion in Neurology
  • Current Treatment Options In Neurology
  • Dentistry Today
  • Educational Leadership
  • Exceptionality
  • Expert Review Of Clinical Immunology
  • F1000 Biology Reports
  • Forum Der Psychoanalyse
  • Healthcare Quarterly (Toronto, Ont.)
  • Human Studies
  • La Revue Du Praticien
  • LÄKartidningen
  • LaKartidningen
  • Medical Hypotheses
  • Mens Sana Monographs
  • Mosaic-A Journal For The Interdisciplinary Study Of Literature
  • Neuroforum
  • Phenomenology And The Cognitive Sciences
  • Philosophical Explorations
  • Philosophical Quarterly
  • PSN-Psychiatrie Sciences Humaines Neurosciences
  • Psyche-Zeitschrift Fur Psychoanalyse Und Ihre Anwendungen
  • Psychological Bulletin
  • Rhetoric Society Quarterly
  • Scientific American
  • State Legislatures
  • Studia Phaenomenologica
  • The Harvard Mental Health Letter / From Harvard Medical School
  • The Journal Of Medical Humanities
  • The Pennsylvania Nurse
  • The Practitioner
  • Trends In Neurosciences
  • University Of Toronto Quarterly
  • Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News
  • Forbes
  • Canadian Geographer-Geographe Canadien
  • Revue Médicale Suisse
  • School Nurse News
  • Review Of Law And Social Change. New York University
  • The American Psychologist
  • Behavioral And Brain Sciences
  • 11th International Conference On Control, Automation, Robotics And Vision (Icarcv 2010)
  • 17th International Conference On Biomagnetism Advances In Biomagnetism - Biomag2010
  • 2010 ACM Conference On Computer Supported Cooperative Work
  • 2010 Annual International Conference Of The IEEE Engineering In Medicine And Biology Society (EMBC)
  • 2010 IEEE International Conference On Acoustics, Speech, And Signal Processing
  • 2010 IEEE International Conference On Image Processing
  • 2010 IEEE International Conference On Image Processing
  • 2010 IEEE International Conference On Robotics And Automation (ICRA)
  • 2010 International Joint Conference On Neural Networks IJCNN 2010
  • Advances In Web-Based Learning-ICWL 2010
  • ASSETS 2010: Proceedings Of The 12th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference On Computers And Accessibility
  • CHI2010: Proceedings Of The 28th Annual CHI Conference On Human Factors In Computing Systems, Vols 1-4
  • Computer Safety, Reliability, And Security
  • Computers Helping People With Special Needs, Proceedings, Pt 2
  • Conference On Environmental Pollution And Public Health, Vol 1-2
  • Entertainment Computing - ICEC 2010
  • Evolution Of Language, Proceedings
  • Future Generation Information Technology
  • IEEE Virtual Reality 2010, Proceedings
  • International Conference On Learner Diversity 2010
  • Medical Image Computing And Computer-Assisted Intervention - MICCAI 2010, Pt I
  • Photonic Therapeutics And Diagnostics VI
  • Proceedings Of 2010 International Conference On Behavioral, Cognitive And Psychological Sciences
  • Selected Topics In Applied Computer Science
  • Ubicomp 2010: Proceedings Of The 2010 ACM Conference On Ubiquitous Computing
  • WCPCG 2010
  • XIV European Conference On Developmental Psychology (ECDP)
  • ICIEA 2010: Proceedings Of The 5th IEEE Conference On Industrial Electronics And Applications, Vol 4
  • Security-Enriched Urban Computing And Smart Grid
  • Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation

Appendix II: Automated Categorization of ASD Publications (1980-2009)

Manual assignment of the more than 20,000 ASD related publications between the years of 1980 to 2009 to the seven IACC Strategic Plan Critical Question areas would have required significant effort and resources. As a proxy for this manual review, publications were assigned using the semi-automated k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) algorithm.

As a first step in this approach, subject matter experts reviewed all of the 2010 ASD publications and manually assigned them to different research areas and subcategories based on the titles and abstracts of the specific publication. ASD publications from 1980 to 2009 ("prior publications") were then categorized based on their similarity to the previously classified 2010 publications. Prior publications were compared to 2010 publications and assigned a similarity score based on a modified Okapi BM25 algorithm. These publications were assigned to the category of the mode of the 25 publications from 2010 with the highest similarity scores. This approach to categorize publications was chosen because of the performance as well as accuracy and ease of use. Initial tests for automated categorization using other algorithms including Naïve Bayesian, supervised Latent Dirichlet, Boosting and Tree algorithms, all showed accuracy of much less than 70%.

While some publications naturally span multiple research categories, each publication is assigned to only one category for ease of tracking and trend analyses. Using this approach errs on the side of potentially underestimating the volume of research in some categories.

Appendix III: Web of Science® Journal Subject Categories

Journal Subject Category: Journals indexed in Web of Science are manually assigned to a Journal Subject Category based on an assessment of the applicable research field. These subject categories are used in the Journal Citation Reports®. Under this scheme, journals may be classified under more than one of the over 270 subject categories, and a given journal may be assigned to multiple categories to reflect the diverse nature of literature it publishes. Every article within a given journal inherits the subject category of the journal itself. To establish an appropriate and informative comparison group, the current ASD publications analysis used Journal Subject Categories to identify publications that are similar in discipline to those within the ASD publication portfolio.

The distribution of ASD publications by Journal Subject Category is presented in Table A-6 below. These Journal Subject Categories were used to establish a baseline for comparing the growth of ASD publications since 1980. For this comparison, the total publications within these Journal Subject Categories in each year was multiplied by the total ASD publications in 1980, then divided by the total publications within the Journal Subject Categories in 1980. The resulting values indicate the expected number of ASD publications based on the rate of growth within the comparable Journal Subject Categories.

Table A-6. Comparison Group: Journal Subject Categories Comprising 75% of ASD Publications Since 1980

Deluxe Journal Subject Category Number of ASD Related Publications Percent of Total Cumulative Percent

Deluxe Journal Subject Category

Psychology, Developmental

Number of ASD Related Publications

6,066

Percent of Total

15%

Cumulative Percent

15%

Deluxe Journal Subject Category

Psychiatry

Number of ASD Related Publications

5,470

Percent of Total

13%

Cumulative Percent

28%

Deluxe Journal Subject Category

Neurosciences

Number of ASD Related Publications

3,782

Percent of Total

9%

Cumulative Percent

38%

Deluxe Journal Subject Category

Clinical Neurology

Number of ASD Related Publications

2,866

Percent of Total

7%

Cumulative Percent

45%

Deluxe Journal Subject Category

Rehabilitation

Number of ASD Related Publications

2,627

Percent of Total

6%

Cumulative Percent

51%

Deluxe Journal Subject Category

Pediatrics

Number of ASD Related Publications

2,251

Percent of Total

6%

Cumulative Percent

57%

Deluxe Journal Subject Category

Genetics & Heredity

Number of ASD Related Publications

1,963

Percent of Total

5%

Cumulative Percent

62%

Deluxe Journal Subject Category

Education, Special

Number of ASD Related Publications

1,948

Percent of Total

5%

Cumulative Percent

66%

Deluxe Journal Subject Category

Psychology, Clinical

Number of ASD Related Publications

1,242

Percent of Total

3%

Cumulative Percent

69%

Deluxe Journal Subject Category

Psychology

Number of ASD Related Publications

1,037

Percent of Total

3%

Cumulative Percent

72%

Deluxe Journal Subject Category

Behavioral Sciences

Number of ASD Related Publications

901

Percent of Total

2%

Cumulative Percent

74%

Deluxe Journal Subject Category

Psychology, Experimental

Number of ASD Related Publications

748

Percent of Total

2%

Cumulative Percent

76%

Appendix IV: Web of Science® Citation Data

Citation counts were used in Chapter Two to measure the impact and maturity of the autism research field as well as in Chapter Four to address the impact of collaborations. When appropriate, we used the average field-normalized citation count to ensure that the data were compared adequately between autism and other research fields.

Citations: The citation count is the number of times that a citation has been recorded for a given publication since it was published. Not all citations are recorded since not all publications are indexed. However, the material indexed by Thomson Reuters is estimated to attract about 95% of global citations. The two-year citation counts used in some of the current analyses include only those citations made within 730 days of publication. This limitation allows for comparison across publications that have had different lengths of time to accumulate citations.

Average normalized citation impact/count: Citation rates vary across research fields and from one time period to another. Consequently, analyses must take both field and year into account. In addition, the type of publication will influence the citation count. For this reason, only citation counts of papers of the same document type are used in calculations of citation impact. The standard normalization factor is the world average citations per paper for the year and journal category in which the paper was published. This normalization is also referred to as "rebasing" the citation count.

ON HOLD, NEED TO REVISIT

Appendix V: Full Funder List for 2010 ASD Publications

[ Download Excel version of the table ]
Funding Organization Funder Type Country of Origin Distinct Publications Acknowledging Funding Organization

Appendix VI: Country Co-Authorship Pairs in 2010 ASD Publications

[ Download Excel version of the table ]

Rank Countries Number of Publications

Rank

1

Countries

United Kingdom, United States

Number of Publications

40

Rank

2

Countries

Canada, United States

Number of Publications

39

Rank

3

Countries

Italy, United States

Number of Publications

26

Rank

4

Countries

Netherlands, United States

Number of Publications

21

Rank

5

Countries

Australia, United Kingdom

Number of Publications

19

Rank

5

Countries

France, United States

Number of Publications

19

Rank

7

Countries

Germany, United States

Number of Publications

17

Rank

7

Countries

Netherlands, United Kingdom

Number of Publications

17

Rank

9

Countries

Germany, United Kingdom

Number of Publications

16

Rank

10

Countries

Australia, United States

Number of Publications

15

Rank

10

Countries

Canada, United Kingdom

Number of Publications

15

Rank

12

Countries

China, United States

Number of Publications

14

Rank

13

Countries

France, United Kingdom

Number of Publications

13

Rank

13

Countries

Sweden, United States

Number of Publications

13

Rank

15

Countries

Belgium, Netherlands

Number of Publications

12

Rank

15

Countries

Canada, France

Number of Publications

12

Rank

15

Countries

Germany, Netherlands

Number of Publications

12

Rank

15

Countries

Ireland, United Kingdom

Number of Publications

12

Rank

15

Countries

Spain, United States

Number of Publications

12

Rank

15

Countries

Sweden, United Kingdom

Number of Publications

12

Rank

21

Countries

Denmark, United States

Number of Publications

10

Rank

21

Countries

Italy, Netherlands

Number of Publications

10

Rank

23

Countries

New Zealand, United States

Number of Publications

9

Rank

24

Countries

France, Germany

Number of Publications

8

Rank

24

Countries

Germany, Italy

Number of Publications

8

Rank

24

Countries

Israel, United States

Number of Publications

8

Rank

24

Countries

Italy, United Kingdom

Number of Publications

8

Rank

28

Countries

Belgium, United States

Number of Publications

7

Rank

28

Countries

France, Italy

Number of Publications

7

Rank

28

Countries

France, Netherlands

Number of Publications

7

Rank

28

Countries

Italy, New Zealand

Number of Publications

7

Rank

28

Countries

Korea, Republic of, United States

Number of Publications

7

Rank

28

Countries

Poland, United States

Number of Publications

7

Rank

28

Countries

Switzerland, United States

Number of Publications

7

Rank

35

Countries

Belgium, France

Number of Publications

6

Rank

35

Countries

Belgium, Germany

Number of Publications

6

Rank

35

Countries

France, Sweden

Number of Publications

6

Rank

35

Countries

Ireland, United States

Number of Publications

6

Rank

35

Countries

Israel, United Kingdom

Number of Publications

6

Rank

35

Countries

Norway, United States

Number of Publications

6

Rank

35

Countries

Turkey, United States

Number of Publications

6

Rank

42

Countries

Australia, Canada

Number of Publications

5

Rank

42

Countries

Australia, France

Number of Publications

5

Rank

42

Countries

Australia, Germany

Number of Publications

5

Rank

42

Countries

Belgium, United Kingdom

Number of Publications

5

Rank

42

Countries

Canada, Italy

Number of Publications

5

Rank

42

Countries

Ireland, Netherlands

Number of Publications

5

Rank

42

Countries

Ireland, Portugal

Number of Publications

5

Rank

42

Countries

Japan, United Kingdom

Number of Publications

5

Rank

42

Countries

Norway, Sweden

Number of Publications

5

Rank

42

Countries

Norway, United Kingdom

Number of Publications

5

Rank

42

Countries

Portugal, United Kingdom

Number of Publications

5

Rank

42

Countries

Spain, United Kingdom

Number of Publications

5

Rank

42

Countries

Taiwan, Province of China, United States

Number of Publications

5

Rank

55

Countries

Belgium, Canada

Number of Publications

4

Rank

55

Countries

Canada, Germany

Number of Publications

4

Rank

55

Countries

Canada, Netherlands

Number of Publications

4

Rank

55

Countries

Canada, Sweden

Number of Publications

4

Rank

55

Countries

Denmark, Germany

Number of Publications

4

Rank

55

Countries

Denmark, United Kingdom

Number of Publications

4

Rank

55

Countries

Finland, United States

Number of Publications

4

Rank

55

Countries

Germany, Ireland

Number of Publications

4

Rank

55

Countries

Greece, United States

Number of Publications

4

Rank

55

Countries

Italy, Sweden

Number of Publications

4

Rank

55

Countries

Japan, United States

Number of Publications

4

Rank

55

Countries

Netherlands, Sweden

Number of Publications

4

Rank

67

Countries

Australia, Belgium

Number of Publications

3

Rank

67

Countries

Australia, Netherlands

Number of Publications

3

Rank

67

Countries

Australia, Sweden

Number of Publications

3

Rank

67

Countries

Belgium, Denmark

Number of Publications

3

Rank

67

Countries

Belgium, Italy

Number of Publications

3

Rank

67

Countries

Brazil, United States

Number of Publications

3

Rank

67

Countries

Canada, Ireland

Number of Publications

3

Rank

67

Countries

Denmark, Netherlands

Number of Publications

3

Rank

67

Countries

France, Ireland

Number of Publications

3

Rank

67

Countries

Germany, Sweden

Number of Publications

3

Rank

67

Countries

Greece, Italy

Number of Publications

3

Rank

67

Countries

Greece, United Kingdom

Number of Publications

3

Rank

67

Countries

India, United States

Number of Publications

3

Rank

67

Countries

Ireland, Italy

Number of Publications

3

Rank

67

Countries

Italy, Portugal

Number of Publications

3

Rank

67

Countries

Italy, Spain

Number of Publications

3

Rank

67

Countries

Japan, Russian Federation

Number of Publications

3

Rank

67

Countries

Netherlands, New Zealand

Number of Publications

3

Rank

67

Countries

Netherlands, Portugal

Number of Publications

3

Rank

67

Countries

New Zealand, United Kingdom

Number of Publications

3

Rank

67

Countries

Portugal, United States

Number of Publications

3

Rank

67

Countries

Switzerland, United Kingdom

Number of Publications

3

Rank

89

Countries

Australia, Italy

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

Australia, New Zealand

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

Austria, Germany

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

Austria, United Kingdom

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

Austria, United States

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

Belgium, Israel

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

Belgium, Sweden

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

Belgium, Switzerland

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

Brazil, United Kingdom

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

Canada, Greece

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

Canada, Portugal

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

Chile, United States

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

Czech Republic, United States

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

France, Greece

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

France, Norway

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

France, Portugal

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

France, Switzerland

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

Germany, Greece

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

Germany, Portugal

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

Germany, Spain

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

Germany, Switzerland

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

Greece, Ireland

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

Greece, Netherlands

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

Greece, Portugal

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

Greece, Sweden

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

Hungary, Romania

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

Ireland, Israel

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

Ireland, Sweden

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

Israel, Italy

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

Italy, Norway

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

Japan, Netherlands

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

Portugal, Sweden

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

Russian Federation, United States

Number of Publications

2

Rank

89

Countries

Thailand, United States

Number of Publications

2

Rank

123

Countries

Argentina, Spain

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Australia, India

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Australia, Ireland

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Australia, Israel

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Australia, Mexico

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Australia, Turkey

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Austria, Belgium

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Austria, Denmark

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Austria, Netherlands

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Belgium, Brazil

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Belgium, Chile

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Belgium, Ireland

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Belgium, Lithuania

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Belgium, Portugal

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Belgium, Spain

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Brazil, Canada

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Brazil, Netherlands

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Brazil, Russian Federation

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Brazil, Sweden

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Brazil, Thailand

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Canada, Chile

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Canada, Egypt

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Canada, Iran, Islamic Republic of

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Canada, Israel

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Canada, Korea, Republic of

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Canada, Kuwait

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Canada, Pakistan

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Canada, Romania

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Canada, Spain

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Canada, Switzerland

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Chile, Germany

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Chile, Israel

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Chile, Italy

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

China, Finland

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

China, Japan

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

China, Spain

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

China, Turkey

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Croatia, United Kingdom

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Croatia, United States

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Czech Republic, France

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Czech Republic, Italy

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Czech Republic, Poland

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Denmark, France

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Denmark, Ireland

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Denmark, Israel

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Denmark, Norway

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Denmark, Portugal

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Denmark, Slovenia

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Denmark, Spain

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Denmark, Sweden

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Denmark, Switzerland

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Egypt, Switzerland

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Finland, Germany

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Finland, Italy

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Finland, Netherlands

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Finland, Norway

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Finland, Sweden

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Finland, United Kingdom

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

France, India

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

France, Japan

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

France, Taiwan, Province of China

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

France, Tunisia

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Germany, India

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Germany, Israel

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Germany, Japan

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Hungary, Japan

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Hungary, United Kingdom

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Hungary, United States

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Iceland, Norway

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Iceland, United Kingdom

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Iceland, United States

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

India, Japan

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

India, United Kingdom

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Iran, Islamic Republic of, United States

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Ireland, Spain

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Israel, Netherlands

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Israel, Spain

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Israel, Switzerland

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Italy, Japan

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Italy, Korea, Republic of

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Italy, Russian Federation

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Italy, Switzerland

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Japan, Korea, Republic of

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Japan, New Zealand

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Japan, Poland

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Korea, Republic of, Russian Federation

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Lithuania, Netherlands

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Lithuania, Portugal

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Mexico, United States

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Netherlands, Spain

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Netherlands, Switzerland

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Pakistan, United Kingdom

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Poland, United Kingdom

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Portugal, Spain

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Saudi Arabia, South Africa

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Saudi Arabia, United States

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Singapore, United States

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Slovenia, United States

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Spain, Sweden

Number of Publications

1

Rank

123

Countries

Spain, Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of

Number of Publications

1


Appendix VII: 2010 ASD Publication Counts by Country

[ Download Excel version of the table ]

Author Country Primary Research Publications Secondary Research Publications Total Publications

Author Country

United States

Primary Research Publications

791

Secondary Research Publications

249

Total Publications

1040

Author Country

United Kingdom

Primary Research Publications

227

Secondary Research Publications

60

Total Publications

287

Author Country

Canada

Primary Research Publications

107

Secondary Research Publications

30

Total Publications

137

Author Country

Netherlands

Primary Research Publications

81

Secondary Research Publications

16

Total Publications

97

Author Country

Italy

Primary Research Publications

65

Secondary Research Publications

21

Total Publications

86

Author Country

France

Primary Research Publications

65

Secondary Research Publications

13

Total Publications

78

Author Country

Australia

Primary Research Publications

64

Secondary Research Publications

21

Total Publications

85

Author Country

Germany

Primary Research Publications

64

Secondary Research Publications

9

Total Publications

73

Author Country

Japan

Primary Research Publications

63

Secondary Research Publications

6

Total Publications

69

Author Country

Sweden

Primary Research Publications

51

Secondary Research Publications

8

Total Publications

59

Author Country

Turkey

Primary Research Publications

32

Secondary Research Publications

2

Total Publications

34

Author Country

Israel

Primary Research Publications

30

Secondary Research Publications

5

Total Publications

35

Author Country

China

Primary Research Publications

27

Secondary Research Publications

4

Total Publications

31

Author Country

Belgium

Primary Research Publications

25

Secondary Research Publications

4

Total Publications

29

Author Country

Spain

Primary Research Publications

25

Secondary Research Publications

4

Total Publications

29

Author Country

Ireland

Primary Research Publications

23

Secondary Research Publications

2

Total Publications

25

Author Country

Taiwan, Province of China

Primary Research Publications

19

Secondary Research Publications

1

Total Publications

20

Author Country

Norway

Primary Research Publications

18

Secondary Research Publications

1

Total Publications

19

Author Country

Denmark

Primary Research Publications

18

Secondary Research Publications

1

Total Publications

19

Author Country

Poland

Primary Research Publications

16

Secondary Research Publications

5

Total Publications

21

Author Country

Brazil

Primary Research Publications

15

Secondary Research Publications

4

Total Publications

19

Author Country

Korea, Republic of

Primary Research Publications

14

Secondary Research Publications

0

Total Publications

14

Author Country

India

Primary Research Publications

11

Secondary Research Publications

6

Total Publications

17

Author Country

Switzerland

Primary Research Publications

11

Secondary Research Publications

5

Total Publications

16

Author Country

New Zealand

Primary Research Publications

11

Secondary Research Publications

3

Total Publications

14

Author Country

Portugal

Primary Research Publications

11

Secondary Research Publications

1

Total Publications

12

Author Country

Russian Federation

Primary Research Publications

9

Secondary Research Publications

1

Total Publications

10

Author Country

Finland

Primary Research Publications

9

Secondary Research Publications

0

Total Publications

9

Author Country

Greece

Primary Research Publications

8

Secondary Research Publications

2

Total Publications

10

Author Country

Iran, Islamic Republic of

Primary Research Publications

6

Secondary Research Publications

4

Total Publications

10

Author Country

Egypt

Primary Research Publications

6

Secondary Research Publications

0

Total Publications

6

Author Country

Austria

Primary Research Publications

5

Secondary Research Publications

2

Total Publications

7

Author Country

Croatia

Primary Research Publications

4

Secondary Research Publications

1

Total Publications

5

Author Country

Czech Republic

Primary Research Publications

4

Secondary Research Publications

1

Total Publications

5

Author Country

Saudi Arabia

Primary Research Publications

4

Secondary Research Publications

1

Total Publications

5

Author Country

Chile

Primary Research Publications

4

Secondary Research Publications

1

Total Publications

5

Author Country

Hungary

Primary Research Publications

4

Secondary Research Publications

0

Total Publications

4

Author Country

Mexico

Primary Research Publications

4

Secondary Research Publications

0

Total Publications

4

Author Country

Romania

Primary Research Publications

3

Secondary Research Publications

0

Total Publications

3

Author Country

Slovakia

Primary Research Publications

3

Secondary Research Publications

0

Total Publications

3

Author Country

South Africa

Primary Research Publications

3

Secondary Research Publications

0

Total Publications

3

Author Country

Iceland

Primary Research Publications

3

Secondary Research Publications

0

Total Publications

3

Author Country

Singapore

Primary Research Publications

2

Secondary Research Publications

2

Total Publications

4

Author Country

Thailand

Primary Research Publications

2

Secondary Research Publications

2

Total Publications

4

Author Country

Tunisia

Primary Research Publications

2

Secondary Research Publications

1

Total Publications

3

Author Country

Slovenia

Primary Research Publications

1

Secondary Research Publications

0

Total Publications

1

Author Country

Pakistan

Primary Research Publications

1

Secondary Research Publications

0

Total Publications

1

Author Country

Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of

Primary Research Publications

1

Secondary Research Publications

0

Total Publications

1

Author Country

Bahrain

Primary Research Publications

1

Secondary Research Publications

0

Total Publications

1

Author Country

Nigeria

Primary Research Publications

1

Secondary Research Publications

0

Total Publications

1

Author Country

Lithuania

Primary Research Publications

1

Secondary Research Publications

0

Total Publications

1

Author Country

Argentina

Primary Research Publications

0

Secondary Research Publications

3

Total Publications

3

Author Country

Serbia & Montenegro

Primary Research Publications

0

Secondary Research Publications

1

Total Publications

1

Author Country

Colombia

Primary Research Publications

0

Secondary Research Publications

1

Total Publications

1

Author Country

Malaysia

Primary Research Publications

0

Secondary Research Publications

1

Total Publications

1

Author Country

Kuwait

Primary Research Publications

0

Secondary Research Publications

1

Total Publications

1


Appendix VIII: Methodology for Calculating World Share of Autism Research Publications

Publications are counted on a "whole-count basis," where each collaborating country on a given publication was credited one count. For example, if there are three authors listed on a publication, two from the US and one from UK, the publication would be counted twice, once for the US and once for the UK. To determine the country's annual share, each country's count is divided by the total number of publications in that year. This method shows the full contribution of each country without penalizing for international collaboration.

An alternative method is the fractional approach, where each participating country receives a fraction of the count. Using this approach would be appropriate for other types of analyses in which the purpose is to highlight countries that publish singly versus those that publish mainly as a result of international collaborations. A fractional approach would show a lower volume for countries that publish only collaboratively and would not accurately reflect the total number of publications from each country as intended in the current analysis. In 2010, approximately 20% of ASD research articles result from international collaborations, and the whole count methodology works well for the ASD field at its current stage, but in the future, if the field becomes increasingly collaborative across international borders, the fractional count method may be more useful.

Copyright Information
All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced, copied, or used in presentations and publications. A suggested citation follows.

Suggested Citation
Office of Autism Research Coordination (OARC), National Institute of Mental Health and Thomson Reuters, Inc. on behalf of the Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC). IACC/OARC Autism Spectrum Disorder Research Publications Analysis Report: The Global Landscape of Autism Research. July 2012. Retrieved from the Department of Health and Human Services Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee website: http://iacc.hhs.gov/publications-analysis/july2012/index.shtml

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