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Portfolio Analysis Cover 2013
Portfolio Analysis Report
IACC Autism Spectrum Disorder Research
2013
Appendices

Appendix A

Federal Agency and Private Organization Mission Statements

Federal Agencies – Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)

Administration for Children and Families (ACF)

The mission of ACF is to foster health and well-being by providing Federal leadership, partnership and resources for the compassionate and effective delivery of human services. The ACF autism-related research portfolio includes projects focused on ensuring that effective and culturally appropriate developmental screening tools and interventions are being developed and deployed in early education settings.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)

The mission of AHRQ is to improve the quality, safety, efficiency, and effectiveness of health care for all Americans. Their portfolio includes projects to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of autism interventions and to conduct systematic reviews of the literature on topics such as autism screening and autism interventions, with the goal of evaluating the strength of the evidence supporting practices and identifying gaps in research. AHRQ also funds projects aimed at disseminating information about best practices and other findings from their reviews to researchers, practitioners, the patient community, and other stakeholders.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

The mission of CDC is to create the expertise, information, and tools that people and communities need to protect their health. This is achieved through health promotion, prevention of disease, injury and disability, and preparedness for new health threats. CDC’s autism research portfolio includes projects to collect data on ASD prevalence and risk factors, and projects to improve awareness, early detection, and intervention.

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS)

CMS administers the Medicare program and works in partnership with State governments to administer Medicaid, the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), and health insurance portability standards. CMS funds studies to evaluate ASD service provision, access, and coverage, and has commissioned several reports on state-provided services for ASD.

Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)

HRSA is the primary Federal agency for improving access to health care services for people who are uninsured, isolated, or medically vulnerable. The Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) supports autism-related programs through its Combating Autism Act Initiative (CAAI), including projects to increase awareness, reduce barriers to screening and diagnosis, promote the development of guidelines for evidence-based practices, and train health care professionals to provide screening as well as diagnostic and early, evidence-based intervention. Flagship programs include the Autism Intervention Research Networks (AIR-B and AIR-P), the Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics Research Network (DBPNet), and the Leadership Education in Neurodevelopmental and Related Disabilities (LEND) program.

National Institutes of Health (NIH)

The mission of NIH is to seek fundamental knowledge about the nature and behavior of living systems and the application of that knowledge to enhance health, lengthen life, and reduce illness and disability. The NIH supports a broad range of research on ASD, including projects on the basic neuroscience of ASD, risk factors, diagnosis, intervention, and services research. One of the flagship autism programs funded by NIH, the Autism Centers of Excellence (ACE), is a collection of research centers and networks across the country that conduct research on ASD. NIH also funds interdisciplinary data repositories such as the National Database for Autism Research (NDAR) to facilitate the sharing of autism research data among scientists worldwide.

Federal Agencies – Other

Department of Defense (DoD)

The Department of Defense (DoD) is charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces. Within the DoD’s Defense Health Research Program, the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program’s Autism Research Program (ARP) was established in 2007, with the mission to improve the lives of individuals with ASD by promoting innovative research that advances the understanding of ASD and leads to improved outcomes for those with ASD. The projects that the ARP funds span the scope of the IACC.

The U.S. Air Force (DOD-AF) also funds research on ASD, and is developing a multidisciplinary autism research and services program for military families, part of which involves the creation of a comprehensive registry to provide higher quality data for autism clinical and genetics research.

Department of Education (ED)

The mission of the U.S. Department of Education is to promote student achievement by fostering educational excellence and ensuring equal access. The department funds a portfolio of ASD-related projects relating to development and delivery of educational interventions and services, particularly for children and transition-aged youth. A large portion of ED’s funding goes towards developing practitioner training as well as investment in training researchers.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

The mission of the U.S. EPA is to protect human health and the environment. EPA co-funds the Center for Children's Environmental Health (CCEH) at the University of California at Davis with the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)/NIH, which conducts research into how environmental exposure to toxins might interact with a person’s genes and immune system to influence the risk and severity of ASD.

National Science Foundation (NSF)

NSF is an independent Federal agency, formed by Congress to promote the progress of science and to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare. NSF funds basic research in biology, mathematics, computer science, and the social sciences as well as technology development, but it does not focus on health or disease-related research. Although NSF does not have a program focused on ASD, it funds several projects that involve basic science or technologies with the potential to be applied to ASD in the future. NSF is a leading funder of projects involving technological interventions and supports, including robotics and virtual reality technologies that could be used to enhance daily living skills and activities of individuals with disabilities.

Private Organizations

Autism Speaks (AS)

AS is the world's largest autism science and advocacy organization, dedicated to funding research into the causes, prevention, treatments, and a cure for autism; increasing awareness of autism spectrum disorders; and advocating for the needs of individuals with autism and their families. AS funds a broad profile of ASD research ranging from basic neuroscience and the molecular causes of autism to implementation and testing of interventions for those diagnosed with autism. Autism Speaks supports the Autism Treatment Network, a collaboration of 14 specialty centers dedicated to providing families with state-of-the-art, multidisciplinary healthcare for children and teens affected by autism.

Autism Research Institute (ARI)

ARI’s mission is to meet the needs of the global autism community through research, networking, education, and support for families and people of all ages on the autism spectrum. ARI is dedicated to developing a standard of care for individuals with autism spectrum disorders and their families, and funds a range of work with a particular emphasis on investigation of the biological underpinnings of autism, including immune and metabolic pathways.

Autism Science Foundation (ASF)

ASF’s mission is to support autism research by providing funding and other assistance to scientists and organizations conducting, facilitating, publicizing, and disseminating autism research. The organization also provides information about autism to the general public and serves to increase awareness of autism spectrum disorders and the needs of individuals and families affected by autism. ASF funds pre- and postdoctoral trainees to conduct basic and clinical research relevant to ASD, including studies focused on a wide range of topics such as identification of biomarkers, molecular and cellular mechanisms, genetic and environmental risk factors, treatments, and service delivery.

Brain & Behavior Research Foundation (BBRF)

BBRF funds basic neuroscience research to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying brain disorders and conditions. BBRF’s autism research portfolio primarily includes studies on the genetics and molecular mechanisms underlying autism.

Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD)

CARD is one of the world's largest organizations using applied behavior analysis (ABA) in the treatment of ASD, and other related disorders. CARD’s research portfolio is centered around developing new behavioral interventions, assessing existing behavioral interventions, and developing and implementing training/intervention programs for individuals on the autism spectrum from birth to age 21.

Organization for Autism Research (OAR)

The mission of OAR is to support research that directly impacts the day-to-day quality of life of those with ASD. This includes research to inform and improve education, communication, self-care, social skills, employment, behavior, and adult and community living. In this context, it extends to issues related to family support, the efficacy of service delivery systems, and demographic analyses of the autism community.

Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI)

PCORI helps people make informed healthcare decisions and improves healthcare delivery and outcomes by producing and promoting high-integrity, evidence-based information that comes from research guided by patients, caregivers, and the broader healthcare community.

Simons Foundation (SF)/Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative (SFARI)

The mission of SF is to advance the frontiers of research in mathematics and the basic sciences. SF’s single largest initiative is the Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative (SFARI), which seeks to improve the diagnosis and treatment of ASD by funding, catalyzing, and driving innovative research of the greatest quality and relevance. The SF ASD portfolio includes research on genetic and cellular factors underlying autism, identification of genetic and environmental risk factors, and development of potential treatments.


Appendix B

ASD-Related Research Projects not included in the IACC Portfolio Analysis

This section contains lists of projects that are not specifically focused on autism, but may be helpful in understanding the broader landscape of ongoing research on disabilities and other topics that may be relevant to autism.

NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION (NSF)
Award Period Principal Investigator Project Title Weblink

Award Period

2013-2015

Principal Investigator

Fuh-Cherng Jeng

Project Title

Development of Experience-Dependent Responses to Voice Pitch in Newborns and Infants

Weblink

http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1250700&HistoricalAwards=false

Award Period

2013-2017

Principal Investigator

Michael Paradiso

Project Title

Neural investigation of the dual role of saccadic eye movements in visual perception

Weblink

http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1261433&HistoricalAwards=false

Award Period

2013-2018

Principal Investigator

Nicole Rust

Project Title

CAREER: The neural mechanisms underlying visual target and task switching

Weblink

http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1265480&HistoricalAwards=false

Award Period

2013-2015

Principal Investigator

Peter Heeman

Project Title

RI: Small: Flexible Turn-Taking for Mixed-Initiative Spoken Dialogue System

Weblink

http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1321146&HistoricalAwards=false

Award Period

2013-2016

Principal Investigator

Paula Niedenthal

Project Title

Behavioral and neural bases of the perception of facial expressions

Weblink

http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1251101&HistoricalAwards=false

Award Period

2013-2016

Principal Investigator

Alison Gopnik

Project Title

Rational randomness: Search, sampling and exploration in children's causal learning

Weblink

http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1331620&HistoricalAwards=false

Award Period

2013-2016

Principal Investigator

Yang Liu

Project Title

EAGER: Investigating the Role of Discourse Context in Speech-Driven Facial Animations

Weblink

http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1352950&HistoricalAwards=false

Award Period

2013-2016

Principal Investigator

Brian Megerko

Project Title

HCC: Small: Social Agents and Robots for Open-Ended Domains

Weblink

http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1320520&HistoricalAwards=false

Award Period

2013-2015

Principal Investigator

Daniel Messinger

Project Title

Gaze Durations in Infancy

Weblink

http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1323927&HistoricalAwards=false

Award Period

2013-2017

Principal Investigator

Emanuel Papadaki

Project Title

Sparse 3D-Data Representations from Compactly Supported Atoms for Rigid Motion Invariant Classification with Applications to Neuroscience Imaging

Weblink

http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1320910&HistoricalAwards=false

Award Period

2013-2016

Principal Investigator

Ivan Soltesz

Project Title

US-French Collaboration: Mechanisms of emergent OscillaTIONs in the septohippocampal network-MOTION

Weblink

http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1310378&HistoricalAwards=false

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION SCIENCES (IES)
Award Period Principal Investigator Project Title Weblink

Award Period

2008-2017

Principal Investigator

Gail Mulligan

Project Title

Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-11

Weblink

http://nces.ed.gov/ecls/kindergarten2011.asp

Award Period

2007-2015

Principal Investigator

Steven Ingels

Project Title

(RTI) High School Longitudinal Study

Weblink

http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/hsls09

Award Period

Ongoing

Principal Investigator

Drew Malizio

Project Title

National Assessment of Educational Progress

Weblink

http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/aboutnaep.asp

Award Period

2007-2013

Principal Investigator

Thomas Fiore

Project Title

Evaluation of the IDEA Personnel Development Program

Weblink

http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/projects/evaluation/disabilities_personnel.asp

Award Period

2010-2015

Principal Investigator

Jose Blackorby

Project Title

Study of Early Intervention and Special Education Personnel and Services

Weblink

http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/projects/evaluation/disabilities_persserv.asp

Award Period

2010-2015

Principal Investigator

John Burghardt

Project Title

National Longitudinal Transition Study 2012

Weblink

http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/projects/evaluation/disabilities_ideatrans.asp

Award Period

2008-2013

Principal Investigator

Mengli Song

Project Title

Study of School Accountability for Students with Disabilities

Weblink

http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/projects/evaluation/disabilities_students.asp

Award Period

2009-2014

Principal Investigator

Tamara Daley

Project Title

National Evaluation of the IDEA Technical Assistance and Dissemination Program

Weblink

http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/projects/evaluation/disabilities_idea2004.asp

Award Period

2007-2013

Principal Investigator

Jill Constantine, Neil Seftor, Scott Cody

Project Title

What Works Clearinghouse

Weblink

http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/interventionreport.aspx?sid=295

Award Period

2007-2013

Principal Investigator

Jill Constantine, Neil Seftor, Scott Cody

Project Title

What Works Clearinghouse

Weblink

http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/SingleStudyReview.aspx?sid=10011

Award Period

2007-2013

Principal Investigator

Jill Constantine, Neil Seftor, Scott Cody

Project Title

What Works Clearinghouse

Weblink

http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/topic.aspx?sid=19

Award Period

2012-2014

Principal Investigator

Bonnie Doren, Christopher Murray, Ketih Zvoch

Project Title

Examining malleable factors associated with school and postschool outcomes of economically disadvantaged youth with disabilities: A secondary analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS2)

Weblink

http://ies.ed.gov/funding/grantsearch/details.asp?ID=1242

Award Period

2011-2014

Principal Investigator

Karrie Shogren

Project Title

Exploring the predictors and outcomes of self-determination for secondary students with disabilities using NLTS2

Weblink

http://ies.ed.gov/funding/grantsearch/details.asp?ID=1100


Appendix C

ASD Research Progress on IACC Strategic Plan Objectives: Summary of Years 2008-2013

The tables include data (project numbers and funding) from Federal and private funders of ASD research for years 2008 through 2013, as aligned with the objectives of the 2011 IACC Strategic Plan. Please note the following:

During the updating of the Strategic Plan from 2008-2010, the wording and numbering of objectives changed. Data included in each Portfolio Analysis Report from 2008-2013 was categorized at the time with respect to the most recent iteration of the Strategic Plan where the objectives had changed. For the purpose of this six-year comparison, data from the Portfolio Analyses conducted in 2008 and 2009 were aligned with the most recent objectives, found in the 2011 Strategic Plan. The full wording of the 78 objectives listed in the 2011 Strategic Plan is depicted in the left column of the table.

The middle six columns of the table contain the data (project numbers and funding) for each individual year from 2008-2013, with the objective number (as it appeared in the annual Portfolio Analysis) listed above it. The format of objective numbers are abbreviations representing the question number (indicated by a numeral 1-7), whether the objective is a short- or long-term objective (indicated by the letter “S” or “L”, respectively), and the objective designation (indicated by a letter). The IACC recommended budget listed below the project data represents the most updated budget listed in the 2011 Strategic Plan. If the recommended budget has been revised since 2008, the year the revision took place is found in parentheses following the budget figure. Therefore, if there is no mention of a revision, the IACC recommended budget has remained constant from 2008-2011. The annual project status for each objective from 2008-2013 is indicated within the table by colored highlighting of the objective number. An objective is considered active if its status is green or yellow, and inactive if its status is red.

  • Any objective colored green has funding which is greater than or equal to the recommended funding for that year (determined by annualizing the recommended budget associated with that objective); any objective colored yellow has actively funded projects, but with funding that totals less than the annualized recommended amount; any objective colored red has no active, funded projects.3
  • Objectives whose overarching aim (e.g., the ultimate goal of the research, irrespective of the number of projects or the budget for the objective) were achieved/partially achieved either in a previous year, with less annual funding than was recommended, or with funding that was not captured in the portfolio analyses,4 are colored pale green/pale yellow.

The far right column of the table lists the sum of the total funding aligned with each objective from 2008-2013. Highlighting of each total gives an indication of the overall progress toward completing each objective.

  • Green highlighting indicates that funding fully meets the recommend budget. Yellow highlighting denotes that funding for a particular objective partially meets the IACC recommended budget, while red highlighting indicates that there has been no funding towards the particular objective.
  • Objectives whose overarching aim (e.g. the ultimate goal of the research, irrespective of the number of projects or the budget for the objective) was achieved/ partially achieved either with a lower funding level than was recommended or with funding that was not captured in the portfolio analyses, are colored pale green/pale yellow.

3 Please note that while the green, yellow, and red indicators suggest a funding status for each year and that looking across all years may give some indication of a trend, some agencies and organizations provide all the funding for multiyear grants in a single year, resulting in the appearance of “less funding” in other years; projects completing the objectives may still have been ongoing in the years where the funding appears to be less. Thus, it is important to note the numbers of projects in looking across the chart, and to keep in mind that in a series, where, for example, most of the indicators are green, that the objective is likely to be largely “complete” according to the funding-based measure.

4 Reasons why funding for certain projects may not have been captured in the portfolio analyses include projects that were supported by funding that was not specific for autism (i.e., projects that benefited autism but were supported by general neuroscience or developmental disorder funding) or projects supported by funders that did not participate in the portfolio analysis in a given year.


Appendix D

Subcategory Definitions

Strategic Plan Question 1 and Associated research area

Diagnostic and screening tools

This subcategory includes projects that are developing new autism diagnostic and screening tests, as well as those establishing the usefulness of new or revised assessments for autism symptoms. It also encompasses projects aimed at adapting clinical assessments into other languages for use in multi-lingual community settings and non-U.S. countries.

Early signs and biomarkers

Projects which use a variety of methods to search for signs of autism in very young children (generally under age 3) that could be used for diagnosis, such as eye-tracking, physiological measures, and autism-specific behavioral patterns are included in this subcategory. More examples include projects investigating metabolic measures, such as the levels of specific chemicals, hormones, or proteins in the blood that could be used as biomarkers of the disorder.

Intermediate phenotypes/Subgroups

Included in this subcategory are projects aimed at identifying distinct subgroups of people with autism, or those that share common morphological, physiological, or behavioral features. Projects in this subcategory use a variety of methods to identify and distinguish these groups.

Symptomology

These projects seek to define the broad range and severity of autism symptoms, including both biological and behavioral characteristics. Among these studies are some that examine how children and adults with autism vary in their development of social communication and language. Other projects seek to understand the emergence of problem behaviors and how neurocognitive impairments can contribute to symptom development and phenotypic variability in those with an autism diagnosis.

Strategic Plan Question 2 and Associated research area

Cognitive studies

These are studies of psychological and mental processes, including memory, producing and understanding language, solving problems, and making decisions. Projects in this subcategory consist of those that investigate theory of mind, social cognition and empathy, understanding facial expressions of emotion (and how and why this is impaired in ASD), and recall and memory.

Computational science

Computational methods and modeling allow for the synthesis and study of large and complex sets of data. Some projects in this subcategory collect extensive experimental biological and behavioral data and use powerful computing techniques to reveal new insights. Other aspects of computer science are also included, such as developing statistical modeling techniques to better understand the biology of autism.

Co-occurring conditions

Research on conditions that often co-occur with ASD is included here, such as seizures/epilepsy, sleep disorders, gastrointestinal dysfunction, wandering/ elopement behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and familial autoimmune disorders.

Developmental trajectory

Projects in this subcategory often include longitudinal studies following various aspects of biological and behavioral development in the same individuals over time. Examples include brain growth, face processing, change in neural connectivity over time, and development of communication skills and language processing. These studies often compare children with ASD to typically developing children or to their unaffected siblings.

Immune/Metabolic pathways

These projects focus on understanding the biological mechanisms of metabolism and the immune system that may be altered in autism, typically in cells and animal models. This largely includes studies on inflammation and inflammatory molecules (i.e., cytokines), as well as on the role of mitochondria, energy metabolism, and oxidative stress. Also included in this group are projects seeking to identify specific immune and metabolic triggers in early prenatal and post-natal life, such as maternal infection, maternal auto-antibodies, and toxic exposures.

Molecular pathways

This subcategory includes studies on specific molecules and proteins (other than the immune and metabolic systems) that may be involved in the development of ASD and related genetic disorders (e.g., fragile X syndrome and Rett syndrome). Many of these projects use animal and cellular models to explore the biological effects of specific candidate genes and to identify common molecular pathways, including alterations in synaptic functioning and intracellular signaling cascades.

Neural systems

Studies in this subcategory explore the structure and activity of the brain and underlying neural systems involved in autism, including functional connections between brain regions. Many projects seek to identify the precise neural networks underlying communicationand language processing, social interactions, and behavioral issues. These studies frequently employ imaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and other physiological measures of brain activity, such as electroencephalography (EEG).

Neuropathology

These projects typically include post-mortem examination of brain tissue from ASD individuals. Many of the studies in this subcategory explore how the architecture of the brain may be altered in individuals with autism or how gene expression varies in different areas of the brain.

Sensory and motor function

Projects in this subcategory explore the neural underpinnings of motor skills and abilities in children with ASD and assess visual, auditory, and other sensory processes in the brain.

Subgroups/Biosignatures

Because there is so much heterogeneity among individuals with autism, research to understand how certain subgroups of individuals that share certain behavioral or biological characteristics could help understand some of the underlying biology in ASD. This can be done by searching for certain biological factors (“signatures”), such as hormone levels or structural abnormalities in the brain, that define a particular subgroup. Many of these projects try to make the connection between certain genes with a known or suspected link to autism and the observable characteristic, or phenotype, that they cause.

Strategic Plan Question 3 and Associated research area

Environmental risk factors

This subcategory includes a number of projects investigating potential environmental risk factors for autism. Example projects include studies of the effects of the microbiome, environmental contaminants and toxins, maternal dietary factors, medications taken during pregnancy or to induce labor, assistive reproductive treatments, child and maternal response to immune challenge, and registries where many of these factors can be tracked simultaneously.

Epigenetics

Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that occur without a change in the DNA sequence (such as methylation of DNA). Environmental factors can cause these changes in gene expression, and projects in this subcategory seek to identify some of the environmental influences that may lead to these epigenetic changes.

Gene-Environment

These studies include efforts to identify and understand the contributions of environmental factors, genetic susceptibility, and human physiology (e.g., the immune system, metabolic processes) that may increase the risk for ASD, as well as studies that directly examine gene-environment interactions. (Note: While epigenetic studies are a subset of gene-environment studies, they are tracked as a separate subcategory because there is a substantial number of these projects and the topic of epigenetics is of significant public interest.)

Genetic risk factors

Projects in this subcategory seek to identify new genes that are implicated in increased risk for ASD or to better understand genetic risk factors that were previously identified.

Strategic Plan Question 4 and Associated research area

Behavioral

Projects in this subcategory involve a wide array of behavioral research and training methods, including applied behavior analysis (ABA), cognitive-behavioral therapy, discrete trial training, Early Start Denver Model, imitation training, joint attention training, Lovaas method, pivotal response training, sibling-mediated interventions, and social skills training.

Complementary, dietary, and alternative

This subcategory includes research on acupressure; acupuncture; antioxidants; cholesterol supplementation; glutathione metabolism; nutritional supplements, vitamins, and minerals; probiotics; and special diets (e.g., gluten-free, casein-free).

Educational

Nearly all research in classroom settings falls under this subcategory, including curricula, educational best practices, inclusive education programs, math and reading training, positive behavioral supports, special education programs, TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication-Handicapped Children), and the “Social Stories” approach.

Medical/Pharmacologic

This subcategory includes research on drugs (e.g., antidepressants, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics, melatonin, and stimulants) to treat autism and its co-occurring conditions, as well as medical therapies such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).

Model systems/Therapeutic targets

Animal models mimicking behaviors of ASD and those that are being used to develop or test new drug treatments, as well as cell lines used to discover new drug targets or to screen potential drug candidates, are included in this subcategory.

Occupational, physical, and sensory-based

Therapies in this subcategory encompass art therapy, motor training (including fine motor skills such as handwriting as well as gross motor training involving balance and posture), music therapy, occupational therapy, pet (animal) therapy, physical activity plans and exercise therapy (bike riding, swimming), physical therapy, sensory integration, therapeutic horseback riding, training in self-care and daily living skills, and vocational rehabilitation.

Technology-based interventions and supports

Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), computer applications and software, picture exchange communication system (PECS), social robots, teleconferencing, video modeling and virtual reality (including virtual and 3D environments to mimic social situations), and wearable sensors are all examples of the types of technology in the projects in this subcategory.

Strategic Plan Question 5 and Associated research area

Community inclusion programs

These programs provide instruction in social, communication, and leisure skills to enable individuals with autism to participate in sports, recreation, and socialintegration activities in fully integrated settings and to build successful relationships with others.

Efficacious and cost-effective service delivery

This subcategory includes programs involving web-based curricula and interventions as well as telehealth method¬ology, all of which could benefit those in underserved areas. Various parent training projects (to deliver a behavioral therapy, for example) using web-based methods such as teleconsultation and video feedback make distributing the training programs cost-effective and accessible across the country. Studies to improve dental care are also in this subcategory for effective service delivery.

Family well-being and safety

Studies in this subcategory evaluate issues of caregiver stress and measures of quality of life for individual with ASD and their families, as well as assess programsto help parents navigate the service system after their child receives an ASD diagnosis. It also surveys safety issues for those with autism, including wandering and bullying.

Practitioner training

Projects in this subcategory seek to increase skill levels in service providers, including medical providers, direct support workers, parents and legal guardians, education staff, and public service workers.

Services utilization and access

These projects include surveys of service systems available in different States, evaluations of patterns of medical service use among children with autism, a comprehensive online resource for autism services, andspecific efforts in several states to coordinate services for people with autism. They also evaluate disparities in diagnosis and service utilization as well as barriers to access for racial and ethnic minorities.

Strategic Plan Question 6 and Associated research area

Due to the small number of projects (27 projects in 2013) and the significant overlap between topics covered in these projects, no subcategories were created for this question in the 2013 Portfolio Analysis Report. As the research field grows, subcategories that encapsulate the scope of projects in this question may be defined in the future.

Strategic Plan Question 7 and Associated research area

Biobanks

A biobank is a type of biorepository which stores human biological samples for use in research. Projects in this subcategory support collection of DNA and tissue samples from autism patients.

Data tools

These projects include bioinformatics databases to store genetic, phenotypic, and other medical information from autism patients. They also support infrastructure for several of these major databases to interact.

Research infrastructure

This subcategory includes coordinating centers that support multiple research projects by running tests, analyzing data, and providing statistical analyses. These projects also support facilities that operate large, shared instruments used by several scientists to test research samples.

Research recruitment and clinical care

Projects in this subcategory help increase participation in research studies and conduct medical evaluations for the participants, often collecting data that can be used for multiple studies.

Research workforce development

Workshops, conferences, and training programs that serve to expand the research workforce, enhance interdisciplinary research training, and recruit earlycareer scientists into the ASD field are included in this subcategory.

Surveillance and prevalence studies

Research that measures autism prevalence in the U.S. and internationally is contained in this subcategory, including the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network sites maintained by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

IACC LogoAbout the IACC

The Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC) is a Federal advisory committee charged with coordinating all activities concerning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and providing advice to the Secretary of HHS on issues related to autism. It was established by Congress under the Children’s Health Act of 2000, reconstituted under the Combating Autism Act (CAA) of 2006, and renewed most recently under the Autism Collaboration, Accountability, Research, Education, and Support (CARES) Act of 2014.

Membership of the Committee includes a wide array of Federal agencies involved in ASD research and services, as well as public stakeholders, including self-advocates, family members of children and adults with ASD, advocates, service providers, and researchers, who represent a variety of perspectives from within the autism community. The IACC membership is composed to ensure that the Committee is equipped to address the wide range of issues and challenges faced by families and individuals affected by autism.

Under the CAA and subsequent authorizations, the IACC is required to (1) develop and annually update a strategic plan for ASD research, (2) develop and annually update a summary of advances in ASD research, and (3) monitor Federal activities related to ASD.

Through these and other activities, the IACC provides guidance to HHS and partners with the broader autism community to accelerate research and enhance services with the goal of profoundly improving the lives of people with ASD and their families.

For more information about the IACC, see www.iacc.hhs.gov.

Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee Member Roster

Chair

  • Thomas R. Insel, M.D. Director National Institute of Mental Health National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD

Federal Members

  • James F. Battey, M.D., Ph.D. Director National Institute on Deafness and Other Other Communication Disorders National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD
  • Linda Birnbaum, Ph.D. Director National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and National Toxicology Program National Institutes of Health Research Triangle Park, NC
  • Coleen Boyle, Ph.D., M.S. Hyg. Director National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta, GA
  • Francis S. Collins, M.D., Ph.D. Director National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD
  • Denise Dougherty, Ph.D. Senior Advisor for Child Health and Quality Improvement Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Washington, DC
  • Tiffany R. Farchione, M.D. Medical Officer Division of Psychiatry Products Center for Drug Evaluation and Research U.S. Food and Drug Administration Silver Spring, MD
  • Alan E. Guttmacher, M.D. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD
  • Laura Kavanagh, M.P.P. Director Division of Research, Training and Education Maternal and Child Health Health Resources and Services Administration Rockville, MD
  • Donna M. Kimbark, Ph.D. Program Manager Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs U.S. Department of Defense Frederick, MD
  • Walter J. Koroshetz, M.D. Director National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD
  • Sharon Lewis Commissioner Administration for Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Acting Principal Deputy Administrator Administration for Community Living Washington, DC
  • John P. O’Brien, M.A. Senior Policy Analyst Disabled and Elderly Health Programs Group Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Baltimore, MD
  • Linda K Smith Deputy Assistant Secretary and Inter-Departmental Liaison Early Childhood Development Administration for Children and Families Washington, DC
  • Michael K. Yudin Acting Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services U. S. Department of Education Washington, DC

Public Members

  • Idil Abdull Parent Co-Founder Somali American Autism Foundation Minneapolis, MN
  • James Ball, Ed.D., B.C.B.A.-D. President and CEO JB Autism Consulting Executive Chair, Board of Directors Autism Society Cranbury, NJ
  • Anshu Batra, M.D. Parent Developmental Pediatrician Our Special Kids Los Angeles, CA
  • Noah Britton, M.A. Self Advocate Adjunct Professor of Psychology Bunker Hill Community College Salem, MA
  • Sally Burton-Hoyle, Ed.D. Family Member Associate Professor Department of Special Education Eastern Michigan University Ypsilanti, MI
  • Matthew J. Carey, Ph.D. Parent Contributor, Left Brain Right Brain Blog San Jose, CA
  • Jose F. Cordero, M.D., M.P.H Dean University of Puerto Rico Graduate School of Public Health Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico
  • Jan M. Crandy Parent Case Manager Nevada State Autism Treatment Assistance Program Chair Nevada Commission on Autism Spectrum Disorders Las Vegas, NV
  • Geraldine Dawson, Ph.D. Professor Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC
  • David S. Mandell, Sc.D. Associate Professor Department of Psychiatry and Pediatrics University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine Philadelphia, PA
  • Lyn Redwood, R.N., M.S.N. Parent Co-Founder, Vice President and Board Member Coalition for SafeMinds Tyrone, GA
  • Scott Michael Robertson, Ph.D. Self Advocate President and Vice Chair of Development Autistic Self Advocacy Network University Park, PA
  • John Elder Robison Self Advocate, Parent and Author Neurodiversity Scholar in Residence College of William and Mary Williamsburg, VA
  • Alison Tepper Singer, M.B.A. Parent and Family Member Founder and President Autism Science Foundation New York, NY
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National Institute of Mental Health
National Institutes of Health

Office of Autism Research Coordination Staff List

  • Susan Daniels, Ph.D. Director
  • Dawn A. Beraud, Ph.D. Policy Analyst
  • Ben Feldman, Ph.D. Science Policy Analyst
  • Amanda Garton, M.S., M.S.P.P. Presidential Management Fellow
  • Angelice Mitrakas, B.A. Management Analyst
  • Stephanie Mok, Ph.D. Policy Analyst
  • Karen Mowrer, Ph.D. Science Policy Analyst
  • Julianna Rava, M.P.H. Science Policy Analyst
  • Jeffrey Wiegand, B.S. Web Development Manager

Cover Design
Medical Arts Branch, Office of Research Services, National Institutes of Health

Copyright Information
All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied. A suggested citation follows.

Suggested Citation
Office of Autism Research Coordination, National Institute of Mental Health, on behalf of the Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC). 2013 IACC Autism Spectrum Disorder Research Portfolio Analysis Report. April 2017. Retrieved from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee website: http://iacc.hhs.gov/publications/portfolio-analysis/2013/.

Appendices

 
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